The South Indian states consists of the states lying at the southern part of India and the people living in this region are called the south Indians. Mojority of the people living in south India are Dravidians and speak the Dravidian languages namely Kannada, Malayalam, Tamil and Telugu. The states in South India include the states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu as well as the union territories of Lakshadweep and Pondicherry. Geographically, the southern part of India lies in the peninsular Deccan Plateau. It is enclosed by the three seas, the Arabian Sea at the west, the Indian Ocean at the south and the Bay of Bengal in the east. There are two mountain ranges too in South India which makes it one of the most diverse regions in the world. There are the Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats and a plateau. The two rivers flowing through this region namely the Tungabhadra and Kaveri rivers are the sources of non-perennial water.

Owing to the diversity of this region, it is one of the most sought after tourist destinations for tourists and attract a large number of tourists every year. The south Indian states Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu contain some of the most beautiful and attractive places. Due to the proximity to the sea they have the most beautiful landscape of palm-lined beaches and splendid backwaters. There are many a number of rivers and lakes too in this region. a vast area of this region contains forests, thick jungles and wildlife and there are numerous hills and hillocks which add to the attractiveness of this region.


South India contains one of the most historical places in India. There are a number of ancient monuments such as forts, palaces and temples that speak of its historical past. The South Indian states were initially ruled by a number of dynasties such as the Cholas, Pandyas, Cheras, Hoysalas and Vijayanagar, before the British rule. It was during the middle of the eighteenth century, that the French and the British both tried to gain military control over the region. Then came the era of British rule when South India was divided into Madras, Hyderabad, Mysore, Thiruvithamcore, Kochi, Vijayanagaram and a number of other minor princely states. Finally when India became independent these states were again reorganized to form Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu. It was during the year 1950 that the union territory of Pondicherry was formed. Today with the boom in Information Technology, South India is known globally as the city of Information Technology.

Geographical Features

The geography of this region is unique in that it is picturesquely bordered on all sides. There are mountain ranges, rivers, valleys, lakes, ocean and all these combine to create an atmosphere which is unique from the rest of India and the world. The southern side is bordered by the Vindhya ranges, the northern side is bordered by the rivers Narmada and Mahanadi, the Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean and the Bay of Bengal form the western, southern and eastern boundaries. In the southernmost tip of South India is Kanyakumari. The two mountain ranges in this part of India are the Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats. There are many a number of rivers flowing through South India and these include Kaveri, Krishna, Godavari and Tungabhadra.


The climate in the Southern part of India is tropical with monsoon playing a major part. The south-western monsoon which falls from about June to October accounts for most of the rainfall in the region. Much of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka has a distinctively dry spell from about October to May when there is not much rainfall. The region also experiences cooler nights from October to March while the days are pleasantly warm. In the northern parts of the region temperatures can fall below 10 degree Celsius on occasions at night during this time. Days are very hot from March to June when temperatures can go over 40 degrees. The southern coastal region has an average minimum temperature of 20 degrees and maximum of 35 degrees.


The south Indians have a different culture compared to rest of India. They have an age old ancient culture. The music of South India is known as Carnatic music. Carnatic music is famous all over the world, and is considered one of the oldest systems of music in the world. Carnatic music requires much thought, both artistically and technically. There are several dance forms which also form part of the culture. The dance forms such as Bharatnatayam, Kuchipudi, Kathakali, Kerala Natanam, Mohiniaatam, Ottamthullal, Oppama, Theyyam etc famous all over the world. The culture of south India is also depicted in the clothes worn by the people of this region. Traditionally South Indian women wore saree, and the men wore what is called a Mundu which is a white dhoti. But today many western dress forms have come in which have been wholly accepted by the people of this region.


The architectural spendour of South India is showcased in the temples, palaces and forts. The architecture of South India can be divided into four periods corresponding to the principal kingdoms that ruled during the time. Therefore there are distinctive styles of architecture of the Pallavas, the Cholas, Pandyas and the Vijayanagara rulers. A number of monuments and temples in South India dates back to more than 1700 years and they display delicate carving and sculptures. The architecture of these temples bear testimony to the craftsmanship and creativity of artisans, sculptors and artists of the ancient era. Another feature of South India is the rock architecture. South India has two distinct styles of rock architecture, the pure Dravidian style and the Vesala style architecture. The magnificent temple sculptures of Aihole, Belur, Badami, Halebid, Hampi, Mahabalipura, Madurai, Pattadakal, Tanjore, and the mural paintings of Travancore and Lepakashi are examples of these.


The states of South India are also famous for Ayurveda. Tourists arrive all round the year in great numbers to find cure for their ailments through Ayurveda. Ayurveda treats not only the ailment but the whole person and emphasizes prevention of disease to avoid the need for cure. The states most famous for ayurveda are the states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu. These states house a number of Ayurveda and Spa resorts that provide treatment to people suffering from different ailments. The age old study in Ayurveda by the Ayurvedic Acharyans or Ayurveda Practitioners have developed excellent ways to achieve one's health goals.


Kerala has been famous for its rich variety of spices and these have lured the Dutch, the French and the English alike. The Malabar Coast in the South India is famous for its spices. The spices that have been found in abunance here are cardamom, pepper, cinnamon, cloves and nutmeg. The cuisine of South India is incomplete without the use of coconut. The other popular food items include fish, root tubers, pickles, spicy curries, dosa, idly, uthappam, Sambhar and Vada. Rice is the staple food for the people of South India. The Andhra cuisine has a Mughal impact and their food is known for its spiciness and hotness. The kebabs, the biriyanis, homemade pickles, pappads and dry chutney powders are very famous culinary traditions of South India.